The Difference between Low-FODMAP and High-FODMAP

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If you’ve been experiencing digestive discomfort, you may have heard about the low-FODMAP and high-FODMAP diets. These dietary approaches have been designed to help manage symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other digestive disorders.

The low-FODMAP diet focuses on reducing your intake of certain types of fermentable carbohydrates that are known to exacerbate IBS symptoms. By eliminating or lowering the consumption of these high-FODMAP foods, you can improve your gut health and reduce symptoms such as bloating, gas, and abdominal pain. On the other hand, a high-FODMAP diet consists of foods rich in these fermentable carbohydrates, which may not be suitable for individuals with sensitive digestive systems.

Understanding the difference between low-FODMAP and high-FODMAP diets can help you make informed choices about the foods you consume, allowing you to better manage your digestive health and overall well-being.


The low-FODMAP diet is designed to help manage gastrointestinal symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). By limiting the intake of certain types of carbohydrates, you can relieve symptoms and improve your overall gut health. In this section, we’ll cover various food groups and their respective low-FODMAP options.

Fruits and Vegetables

When choosing fruits and vegetables for your low-FODMAP diet, it’s essential to be mindful of their FODMAP content. Some low-FODMAP fruits include:

  • Strawberries
  • Blueberries
  • Grapes
  • Pineapple
  • Kiwi
  • Oranges

Low-FODMAP vegetables are crucial for maintaining a balanced diet. Some examples are:

  • Carrots
  • Cucumber
  • Bell peppers
  • Zucchini
  • Green beans
  • Kale

Remember to avoid high-FODMAP fruits and vegetables, such as apples, avocados, and cauliflower.

Grains and Cereals

Grains and cereals are a significant source of carbohydrates in your diet. On a low-FODMAP diet, opt for:

  • Brown rice
  • Quinoa
  • Gluten-free bread
  • Oats
  • Rice cakes

Steer clear of high-FODMAP grains such as wheat, barley, and rye.

Protein Sources

Protein is vital for muscle growth and repair. Suitable low-FODMAP sources of protein include:

  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Lean cuts of beef
  • Fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, cod)
  • Eggs
  • Firm tofu

Be cautious with processed meats or those containing high-FODMAP additives, such as sausages or some deli meats.

Dairy and Alternatives

Dairy products can be high in lactose, a type of FODMAP. However, there are lactose-free dairy options and alternatives. Examples of low-FODMAP dairy choices are:

  • Lactose-free milk
  • Lactose-free yogurt
  • Hard cheeses (e.g., cheddar, swiss)

In addition, some dairy alternatives, such as almond milk or coconut yogurt, can also be suitable for a low-FODMAP diet.

Sweeteners and Beverages

Finally, it’s essential to consider sweeteners and beverages in your low-FODMAP diet. Some low-FODMAP options include:

  • Pure maple syrup
  • Brown sugar
  • Stevia
  • Water
  • Tea (e.g., green tea, black tea)
  • Coffee (limit your intake)

Avoid high-FODMAP sweeteners such as honey, agave syrup, and beverages containing high-fructose corn syrup or apple juice.

High-FODMAP Diet

A high-FODMAP diet consists of foods that are rich in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. These are types of carbohydrates that can be difficult for your body to break down and absorb, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation.

In a high-FODMAP diet, you’ll find a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, and dairy products. Some common high-FODMAP fruits include apricots, dates, and figs. On the vegetable front, you may encounter onions, garlic, asparagus, and artichokes. Wheat, rye, and barley are grains that contain high levels of FODMAPs, while beans, lentils, and chickpeas make up some high-FODMAP legumes. Additionally, lactose-containing dairy products and certain cheeses can also contribute to a high-FODMAP diet.

It is worth noting that not all carbohydrates are considered high-FODMAP. Some low-FODMAP alternatives include quinoa, oats, and certain types of rice. In choosing meat, fish, and poultry, you can typically maintain a low-FODMAP consumption, as these foods are often naturally low in FODMAPs.

Sweeteners, both natural and artificial, can be significant sources of FODMAPs. Sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, and other sugar alcohols commonly found in sugar-free or low-sugar products may contribute to a high-FODMAP diet. Additionally, some natural sweeteners, such as honey and high-fructose corn syrup, are high in FODMAPs. Be mindful of these ingredients when selecting beverages, as they may be hidden sources of high-FODMAP content.

Besides the food itself, portion sizes and meal frequency can also impact the overall FODMAP content of your diet. Large meal portions may increase the amount of high-FODMAP foods you consume, exacerbating gastrointestinal symptoms. It’s essential to be aware of serving sizes and consider working with a registered dietitian or nutritionist to design an appropriate meal plan.

While a high-FODMAP diet might cause discomfort for some individuals, particularly those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it’s crucial to remember that everyone’s tolerance to these foods differs. Your personal sensitivity to high-FODMAP foods may require a tailored approach to your diet to maintain balanced nutrition and manage gastrointestinal symptoms.

Understanding FODMAP Categories

FODMAPs are short-chain carbohydrates that can cause digestive issues in some people. They are grouped into four main categories: Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols. In this section, you will learn about each category and its major sources in your diet.


Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of multiple sugar units. They are found in a variety of plant-based foods, such as legumes, onions, and garlic. Two common types are fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). Some people may have difficulty digesting these carbohydrates, leading to gastrointestinal symptoms.

Key sources of oligosaccharides include:

  • Legumes: beans, lentils, and chickpeas
  • Vegetables: onions, garlic, leeks, and artichokes
  • Grains: wheat, barley, and rye


Disaccharides are carbohydrates made from two sugar molecules. The most well-known disaccharide is lactose, which is found in dairy products. Lactose intolerance occurs when you’re unable to properly digest lactose, causing digestive discomfort.

Major sources of disaccharides in your diet:

  • Dairy products: milk, yogurt, soft cheeses
  • Processed foods: bread, cereal, and baked goods containing dairy


Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates, consisting of a single sugar molecule. Fructose, sucrose, and glucose are some common examples. High-fructose foods can cause digestive issues in individuals with fructose malabsorption.

Foods high in monosaccharides include:

  • Fruits: apples, pears, and mangoes
  • Sweeteners: high-fructose corn syrup, agave nectar, and honey
  • Processed foods: sauces, dressings, and preserves


Polyols, also known as sugar alcohols, are a type of sweet-tasting carbohydrate found in some fruits and vegetables, as well as artificial sweeteners. They are not fully absorbed by the gut, which can lead to bloating and other digestive issues.

Common sources of polyols in your diet:

  • Fruits: plums, peaches, and cherries
  • Vegetables: mushrooms, cauliflower, and snow peas
  • Artificial sweeteners: sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol

Knowing the different categories of FODMAPs can help you identify which types of carbohydrates may be triggering your digestive symptoms. By adjusting your diet to include more low-FODMAP foods, you may find relief and better gut health.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and FODMAPs

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that affects your digestive system. The symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, and gas. Managing IBS often involves making changes to your diet and lifestyle, with stress management playing a significant role in alleviating symptoms. One dietary approach that has gained attention in recent years is the low-FODMAP diet.

FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, And Polyols) are a group of short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed by your body. They can cause gastrointestinal symptoms in people with IBS, as they tend to ferment in the gut and increase water retention in the intestines. A low-FODMAP diet can help reduce these symptoms by limiting the intake of high-FODMAP foods.

To follow a low-FODMAP diet, you should replace high-FODMAP foods with low-FODMAP alternatives. For example, substitute wheat-based products with gluten-free grains such as rice or quinoa. Similarly, avoid onions and garlic, opting for chives or the green part of spring onions instead. It is essential to monitor your symptoms while making these changes, as individual tolerances to FODMAPs can vary.

When embarking on a low-FODMAP diet, it is crucial to consult your doctor or a registered dietitian, as they can provide guidance on how to implement the diet without compromising your nutritional needs. Keep in mind that a low-FODMAP diet is not a long-term solution, but rather a temporary measure for identifying your trigger foods. Once you have determined which foods cause your symptoms, you can gradually reintroduce high-FODMAP foods to your diet while maintaining a balanced and varied diet to support your overall health.

In summary, if you are experiencing IBS symptoms, it may be worth considering a low-FODMAP diet under the guidance of a healthcare professional. This approach can help you identify and manage your trigger foods while relieving gastrointestinal symptoms and improving your quality of life.

Consulting a Professional

When dealing with low-FODMAP and high-FODMAP diets, it’s essential to consult a professional to ensure you’re making the right dietary choices for your health. Both doctors and registered dietitians play a critical role in helping you navigate these dietary changes.

Your doctor should be your first point of contact when experiencing digestive discomfort or other symptoms that might suggest a need for dietary adjustments. They can help diagnose any underlying health conditions and, if necessary, refer you to a dietitian or nutritionist for further guidance.

A registered dietitian or nutritionist is an expert in the field of nutrition and can provide personalized advice on low-FODMAP and high-FODMAP diets. They can educate you on the best foods to include or avoid, and work with you to develop a meal plan that meets your individual needs. Be sure to find a professional who has experience with FODMAP diets to ensure you get the most accurate and up-to-date information.

When you start working with a dietitian or nutritionist, make sure you:

  • Keep a food diary to track your daily intake and any symptoms you experience.
  • Communicate your preferences, allergies, and any restrictions to help tailor your meal plan.
  • Follow the professional’s advice closely and be patient, as it can take time to see improvements in your symptoms.

Ultimately, consulting with qualified professionals is crucial in managing a low-FODMAP or high-FODMAP diet. They can provide the necessary guidance to ensure your dietary changes are safe and effective, helping you improve your overall health.

Potential Risks and Health Benefits

A low-FODMAP diet may help alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and improve your gut health. It works by reducing the intake of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, which are found in certain carbohydrates that contribute to gas production and IBS symptoms. On the other hand, a high-FODMAP diet is rich in these fermentable carbohydrates, which may exacerbate IBS symptoms.

While the low-FODMAP diet has shown benefits in IBS symptom management, it’s important to be aware of potential risks. A restrictive diet like the low-FODMAP may impact your nutritional intake, especially if low-FODMAP alternatives aren’t properly incorporated. It is crucial to maintain a balanced diet while practicing a low-FODMAP regimen.

Moreover, adhering to a low-FODMAP diet may lead to changes in gut bacteria. Research has primarily focused on its short-term impact, and potential long-term consequences on gut microbiota are not yet fully understood. Thus, it is essential to approach this diet with caution and consult a healthcare professional before making significant dietary changes.

Some potential health benefits of following a low-FODMAP diet include:

  • Improvement in IBS symptoms such as bloating, gas, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
  • Better overall gut health due to the reduction in fermentable carbohydrates.
  • Potential positive effects on mental well-being as IBS symptoms improve.

In contrast, a high-FODMAP diet may lead to:

  • Exacerbation of IBS symptoms, making it less helpful for those seeking to manage their condition.
  • Negative impact on gut health by increasing the production of gases and contributing to gut dysbiosis.
  • Reduced overall comfort and quality of life for individuals living with IBS.

To reap the benefits of a low-FODMAP diet while minimizing its potential risks, work with a registered dietitian or healthcare professional to ensure that your individual dietary needs are met. They can help you tailor the low-FODMAP diet to your preferences and lifestyle while providing ongoing guidance and support.

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